Post Info TOPIC: Industrialization/Native American Research
mre

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Industrialization/Native American Research
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Background: The end of the century brought about immense changes for immigrants, workers, Native Americans, farmers and more.† The changes would transform everyone's lives.† Whether socialism, the railroads, Social Darwinism, strikes, the role of women, philanthropy, Native American battles, reservations, the Farmer's Alliance or Frederick Jackson Turner, millions of lives would be changed during the end of the 19th century.†

Sources: The two links that we will work with are: http://www.engineofsouls.com/file-5.pdf†(Industrialization) and http://www.engineofsouls.com/file-126.pdf†(Populism/Native Americans).

Directions: Choose one of either the research topics or the seminar questions on each sheet (2 total), research them and then write a forum essay providing information and answering questions relating to your topic.†

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Brandi

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3. Analyzing Native American culture and religion

††† The religions and culture of Native Americans expanded throughout the years, acquiring new beliefs and ceremonies that made them unique, such as their way of prayer or talking to the high spirits.

Attending sweat lodges for the Native Americans was in a way like Christians or Catholics going to church. They would pass around a ceremonial pipe and would take communion with the Great Spirit. In their way of praying they would cover themselves with sweet grass and then let the smoke carry their prayers to heaven. One anonymous Native American women referred to her Bible as the wind.

††† A big part of the lives of Native Americans was nature. Most of them believed in one all powerful master spirit, but many also believed in more than one spirit. Those spirits usually pertained to something in nature. They also believed in an evil spirit that brought hardships upon them. Many thought there was an afterlife and they would try to talk to powerful spirits with different prayers or sacrifices of valuable things. When they were faced with something serious such as war, they believed that shamans could predict the future and even influence the weather. Water was part of the marriage ceremonies. It was used as a symbol of purification and cleansing. The water would cleanse their hands of evils from their past.

††† The Ghost Dance was a main part of Native American religion and culture. This was an effect of them being forced into reservation life. Wovoka had a vision during an eclipse that in a way was a warning pf the evils of white men.

††† Clothing in the Native American culture usually consisted of the "sari" for women. They were very colorful and brought out the feminism in the women. Menís clothing were usually made to be comfortable in harsh climates. Most outfits of the Native Americans varied throughout different tribes, but the basic styles were similar. Most outfits were just rectangular cloth made for comfort for men so they could fulfill their duties with ease. They were usually very thin as well so they would not be too hot.

††† The Native Americans had many different cultures and beliefs, but mostly all derived from similar ideas, beliefs, or concepts.



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Brandi

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7. Was the Populist strategy effective in helping farmers?


†† Farmers in the 19th century were not well off, facing many hardships that left many without money or farms. Mechanization of farming made it hard for farmers to keep their farms. It forced small farmers to borrow money because they needed to pay for their equipment. In the end, if they were not able to pay then their farms would be taken from them.

†† Populists began to form, which was also known as the Peopleís Party. It was for the good of the common people. It formed the Farmersí Alliance of frustrated farmers. They demanded inflation through free and unlimited coinage of sliver at the rate of sixteen ounces of sliver to one ounce of gold. More than one million southern black farmers organized in the Colored Farmersí National Alliance. They shared their pain and complaints with poor white farmers. Having the same economic problems made them look past their racial differences.

†† Populist leader Tom Watson tried to reach out to the black community, knowing that their votes could give him a crucial edge. But the Populist Movement fell after the election in 1896 because it supported the Democratic candidate.

†† The Grange Movement was started when Oliver Hudson Kelley headed south and saw how horrible the farming practices were. The grange spread immensely because of farmersí debts and how they were affected by the railroads. This movement was able to obtain lower prices on equipment and helped in other ways. The Southern Farmersí Alliance had over three million members. Farmers tried to buy products together un bulks to help pay for equipment. The alliance brought up trade agreements that would be helpful to the farmers. It supported the Populists Party but declined after 1892. The farmers faced many hardships but were able to short term answers to their problems through the Populist strategies.



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Kristen

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The role of women in the Industrial ageThe Industrial Revolution in part was fueled by the economic necessity of many women, single and married, to find waged work outside their home. Women mostly found jobs in domestic service, textile factories, and piece work shops.Women were usually expected to go out to work, like in the mills or mines.Hours were long and conditions were hard.Some who were fortunate could have been maids for wealthier families; others may have worked as governesses for rich children.But those who were less fortunate would have to work in the hard conditions during the day and would have to return to their home and do all the domestic needs.They also face the burden of the societies demand for children.The industrial age led to a rapid increase in birth rates.This had an impact on the physical strength of the mothers.Because of this demand, most households would have more then ten children.Women would also have to work right up to the birth and right about the baby is born for financial reasons.Women led really hard and difficult lives during this revolution.††††

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C. Santos

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1. Indian Policies in the 1700's and 1800's

In the 1700's the Indian Policies basically pushed the natives out into the west where no one had yet lived extensivly. In the Indian Removal Act, by Andrew Jackson, it pushed all Native Americans past the Mississippi river and into unknown territoires. This was to insure that they didnt loose their culture and assimilate into American culture. This was also used to help them escape vicious attacks from American settlers. In some wya sthis was helping some of the Native groups from starting war or being massacred by settlers.

In the 1800's the main policy passed was the Dawes Act. This bascially set up reservations for Native Americans and pushed them into their own little bit of land where they would be helped out by American soilders. The natives had just been on that land for not even 100 years and were being forced out once again after they had just adapted to new lifestyles. There in the West they hunted buffalo and lived in peace. When they wouldnt leave peacfully, soilders were sent to remove them and put them into these reservation. The natives who resisted were killed and those who were left were left to be living in these camps. The policy in the 1700's was to help Indians while this new policy was in the best intrest of Americans. The reservations were in case worser than anythign the Native Americans had ever seen before. Food would only be given to them if they were good and the same thing with medicine. This policy bascially took all the natives things and squeezed it out of their hands.

1. Seminar Question #1

The demise of Native American culture was inevitable because the growth of industry, the growth of population and the idea of cultural superiority would be used to push the Inidans off their land. With the use of railroads it now connected the east to the west promoting both trade and expansion into the territories. With the mass flow of immigrants flowing into the America due to the new job oppurtunities the need for land was great and people began moving west into territories which would become states because of the great population increase. Also wiht the need for more land for industry and land for people to live on: the Americans turned to the weaker culture and thoguht about how to obtain their land, Native Americans. The demise of Native Americans came when the reservations were first created and when they began fighting U.S. troops in the west for defense. Also the final bell of their demise was when their own people began to turn on them and help Americans and when they were all eventually pushed off into reservatiosn where they were treated like animals and told wut they could and could not do. This ended the culture of Native Americans.



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Amanda

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Was the demise of Native American culture inevitable?

The demise of Native American culture was inevitable. It was difficult for Native Americans to fight back because so many Americans had moved onto their land. Native Americans were being forced off their land by white Americans. Even the American groups that were trying to help them tried to make them a part of the white American culture. Many Native Americans actually complied with these groups and wanted to be seen as Americans by their clothing and the form of government that they adopted.

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Amanda

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The Philanthropy of Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie was well known for his success in the steel industry and he was a very wealthy business man. He did not use his money for his own personal benefit only, however, in 1901 until his death in 1919 he gave away most of his money to charities and educational institutions. He used his money to fund 3,000 libraries all over the country, as well as Canada, United Kingdom, Ireland, Austrailia, New Zealand, the West Indies, and Fiji. He also strongly believed in the importance of education and gave much of his money away to schools and colleges, such as the Carnegie Institute of Technology and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where the Carnegie Labortory was founded. In 1901, he gave $2 million to Scottish universities to assist in the education of students. He also created a pension for his former Homestead employees, as well as American college professors. He began the Carnegie Hero Fund in 1904 in America to recognize heroism throughout the country. During his lifetime Carnegie gave away about 90% of his wealth, which was $350,695,653, it would be about $4.3 billion today. After his death in 1919, Carnegie gave away the remaining $30,000,000 to charities, foundations, and pensioners.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Carnegie

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