Post Info TOPIC: Chapter 15 Computer Lab Assignment
mre

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Chapter 15 Computer Lab Assignment
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Assignment: For those of you who want to acquire more knowledge and understanding of this chapter, you can complete the following assignment below:


Step #1: Read the Chapter Themes and Chapter Summary below.

Chapter Themes

Theme: The spectacular religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening reversed a trend toward secular rationalism in American culture, and helped to fuel a spirit of social reform. In the process, religion was increasingly “feminized,” while women in turn took the lead in movements of reform, including those designed to improve their own condition.


Theme: The attempt to improve Americans’ faith, morals, and character affected nearly all areas of American life and culture, including education, the family, literature, and the arts—culminating in the great crusade against slavery.


Theme: Intellectual and cultural development in America was less prolific than in Europe, but they did earn some international recognition and became more distinctly American, especially after the War of 1812.


Chapter Summary


In early nineteenth century America, movements of moral and religious reform accompanied the democratization of politics and the creation of a national market economy. After a period of growing rationalism in religion, a new wave of revivals beginning about 1800 swept out of the West and effected great change not only in religious life but also in other areas of society. Existing religious groups were further fragmented, and new groups like the Mormons emerged. Women were especially prominent in these developments, becoming a major presence in the churches and discovering in reform movements an outlet for energies that were often stifled in masculinized political and economic life.


Among the first areas to benefit from the reform impulse was education. The public elementary school movement gained strength, while a few women made their way into still tradition-bound colleges. Women were also prominent in movements for improved treatment of the mentally ill, peace, temperance, and other causes. By the 1840s some women also began to agitate for their own rights, including suffrage. The movement for women’s rights, closely linked to the antislavery crusade, gained adherents even while it met strong obstacles and vehement opposition.


While many reformers worked to improve society as a whole, others created utopian experiments to model their religious and social ideals. Some of these groups promoted radical sexual and economic doctrines, while others appealed to high-minded intellectuals and artists.


American culture was still quite weak in theoretical sciences and the fine arts, but a vigorous national literature blossomed after the War of 1812. In New England the literary renaissance was closely linked to the philosophy of transcendentalism promoted by Emerson and others. Many of the great American writers like Walt Whitman reflected the national spirit of utopian optimism, but a few dissenters like Hawthorne and Melville explored the darker side of life and of their own society.


Step #2: Choose and answer one of the following assignments.  You may use valid and credible websites for your research.  Extra points will be given for students who use and cite primary source documents.  Write your answer in a post.  Be sure to link the websites you used in your research.



1.  Explain the revivals of the Second Great Awakening and their broad cultural implications. Emphasize how the spirit of social reform grew out of individual conversion, and how religious change was linked to the wider democratic movements in American society.


2.  Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


3.  Examine the early women’s movement as one of the most important reforms and explain the obstacles it faced. Show the relationship between women’s growing activism and the broader reforms of the antebellum era.


4.  Explore the “perfectionist” and “utopian” quality of early American culture, as revealed in both the utopian communal experiments and philosophical movements like transcendentalism. Point out the involvement of many writers in reform movements and experiments like Brook Farm.


5.  Use popular contemporary texts like McGuffey’s Readers or Godey’s Lady’s Book to illuminate early American character and values. Discuss how the “messages” that were especially aimed at children or women reveal prevalent social attitudes, as well as the nature and purposes of nineteenth-century education.


6.  Examine the story of the Mormons. In what way is it an "American" story (individualism, fighting religious persecution, pioneering)? In what ways is it an "un-American" story (others' intolerance, communalism, polygamy)?


7.  Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


8.  Review American works of literature of this time (Thoreau, Alcott, Poe, Hawthorne, and Melville). Find contemporary European authors and works of literature (Dickens, Hugo, and Dumas). Are the American works distinct and unique when compared to the European ones?


Step #3:  Respond to a student's post.  Add thoughtful questions comments or questions.


Evaluation:  Students will receive 70 points for writing a detailed answer to the topic of their choice and 30 points for a response to another student's post.



-- Edited by mre at 02:07, 2006-11-14

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melissa gomes

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Melissa Gomes                                                                       November 14, 2006


AP US History                                                                         Chapter 15
                                    Computer Lab Assignment


 


 


2. Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


 


The position of American women in the early 1800s was legally and socially inferior to men. Women could not vote and, if married, could not own property or retain their own earnings. The reform movements of the 1830s, specifically abolition and temperance, gave women a chance to get involved in the public arena. Women reformers soon began to agitate not just for temperance and abolition, but also for women’s rights. Activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Sojourner Truth argued that men and women are created equal and should be treated as such under the law.


              Women, at the beginning of the century and at the end of the century left their assigned sphere, the domestic sphere, for the public sphere and changed women's lives forever. Although poor and working class women had always been a part of the public sphere because they had not choice but to work if they wanted to eat, middle- and upper-class women long aspired to be free of the public sphere to concentrate their energies on creating a home. In the early part of the century, before the industrial revolution really took hold, women were still valued in the home for their ability to prepare herbal remedies for nursing the sick, to care for the aged and to raise their children, to grow wholesome foods in the kitchen garden and to preserve those foodstuff for the winter, to tend the animals in the barnyard, to make candles, and to perform sundry other household tasks which were required to turn a house into a home.


Time and again, these women found that before they could be effective in the public sphere, they would first have to create a climate in which women as women were welcomed into the public sphere. So the nineteenth-century woman's movement arose along with the other social reform movements, initially as a way of making female reformers more effective activists for their chosen cause. Only by the middle of the third quarter of the nineteenth century did a significant number of women begin to work for woman's rights as their primary issue, and there was a lot of work to be done to aid women. That first generation of the first wave of American feminism broke many barriers, opening doors of opportunity for women of future generations, opportunities that later women would use to mount even greater challenges to the system, which excluded women.


The nineteenth century has been referred to as the "Woman's Century," and it was a period of amazing change and progress for American women. There were great leaps forward in women's legal status, their entrance into higher education and the professions, and their roles in public life. All of their roles in economic, political, and social factors in the United States affected how women themselves helped shape history.



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mre

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melissa gomes wrote:



Only by the middle of the third quarter of the nineteenth century did a significant number of women begin to work for woman's rights as their primary issue, and there was a lot of work to be done to aid women. That first generation of the first wave of American feminism broke many barriers, opening doors of opportunity for women of future generations, opportunities that later women would use to mount even greater challenges to the system, which excluded women.




 


Good job, Melissa.  I've got two questions for you: 1) why did it take a while for women to work for women's rights as a primary issue?  and 2) how did women in that first generation break down barriers and open doors?



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Krystal F.

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2.  Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


During the nineteenth century, women’s roles in society were greatly controlling.  Women didn’t have many rights or freedoms at all.  For example, they couldn’t vote.  Women also lost control of money and property rights after they got married.  The Cult of Domesticity was believed that women’s roles when they’re married were to set examples and teach the children, as well as maintain their home for their husbands.  In order to be a “true” woman, they were to possess piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity. 


The “separate sphere” was a defined role for women working in the home.  It was seen that women were only suited to teach and raise their children.


 


Major female reformers included Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.  These women led the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, in which they rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include women’s rights.  They called it the Declaration of Sentiments.  These women, along with many others in history, advocated their rights as well as others’.


                                                      


                                                      _Krystal


 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_domesticity



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Brandi

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2) Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the "cult of domesticity" and women's "separate sphere" gave women a specifically defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


During the nineteenth century women were not part of public affairs. Their lives consisted of time at home. When they were out in public it was for work, but their main work was in the home. This concept was called the cult of domesticity. Women were supposed to prepare the house and keep it neat for when their husbands came home. Their main job in the home was to set an example for the children and teach them good morals.


Women were deprived of keeping their property if they got married. It would become the husband’s property upon marriage. There were also different reforms over suffrage, such as the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 led by Lucretia Mott, Susan Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They took a stand in the re-writing of the Declaration of Independence to list different things that they believed were wrong that were held against women.


Women did not normally stand up for their rights, being afraid to be the first to do so. They were so used to being in their own "separate sphere" away from that of men. Women were meant to be the base and "main ingredient" of a family, holding it together and making it suitable for their husband and children. This concept gave a specific role to all women during the nineteenth century.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_domesticity

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s.bailey

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Samantha Bailey


 


7.        Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


 


The Harmony Society, a group of Separatists from the German Lutheran Church, founded New Harmony. It began in 1814 and lasted until the early 1900’s. First in Harmonie, PA, moved to Economy, PA and was led by George Rapp. Another utopian community was built in Harmonie by Robert Owen. Mainly prayed and worked, making great economic strides. They were the first to offer kindergarten, a free public school, a free library, and the school with equal education for boys and girls. Money was banned. Very little private property.


While some ideas from New Harmony were important, such as free education, human nature would not be able to accept completely sharing all possessions. Being from a world in which private property was everything, you are bound to have a want for things, to want your things to yourself. For instance, if we took all the people in this class and told them everything they had belong to everyone else, people would get pretty mad. They wouldn’t want to share the things they got through their own hard work with people who did nothing for it. I think this lack of private property was one cause of failure for New Harmony that should not be applauded, while the idea itself is a great one in teaching people to be less selfish and greedy.


Government was also a big problem in New Harmony. People could not agree on how they were to govern themselves. New Harmony tried many different forms of government, none of which lasted long enough to be wroth calling the New Harmony form of government. This was an even larger cause for failure.

I think the idea of this utopian community is a good one. It is good for people to strive for happiness, but it is impossible to make everyone happy. This is why those communities failed. The people within couldn’t decide on things amongst themselves, such as government. The people outside did not agree with these communities, and their practices, because they were strange, and different, which time has proven to be a bad thing to be.

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s.bailey

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Krystal F. wrote:



Major female reformers included Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.  These women led the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, in which they rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include women’s rights.  They called it the Declaration of Sentiments.  These women, along with many others in history, advocated their rights as well as others’.


 




      What other tactics did these women use to try to gain rights? In what way did these women convince men they were right. also, what about the men that fought for women rights, what were thier reasons?

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Julia GreenE

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7.  Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


 


      The Oneida community was founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848.  Located in Oneida, New York, this was yet another "utopian community" The community together practiced Communalism, some subdivisions of this consisted of complex marriage, male continence, mutual criticism, and ascending fellowship.  They were a very religious group of people and also believed that since Christ had already returned in 70 AD, that they could bring him back yet again.


    Males and females had the same rights and equal voice in government in this special community. There was even a community day care so that both parents would be able to work.


   The Oneida community produced canned fruits and vegetables, silk thread, and manufactured animal traps. Later came silverware, which is still their main industry today.


    This community did very well until Humphrey decided to pass his leadership to his son, Theodore. He was an atheist, which didn't go over well with the community, and did not have the same talents his father did.


     Arguments began to rise in the community over children being exposed to sexual rituals.  Because the founders of the community had mostly deceased, the same ideas weren't being practiced and new traditions were being brough up.


 


  I think these types of communities could work, but only for a certain amount of time. Once the founders of a communy go away, their works and beliefs may not always be relived.  Others have their own ideas and would like a life of their own.


 


SOURCE:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneida_Society



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jay

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The cult of domesticity established the roles women were expected to take. These roles included, staying home and caring for the children, preparing meals, cleaning, and being completely submissive to their husbands. In fact, the cult had four cardinal virtues- piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness. It was said that if a woman followed these virtues she would be guaranteed happiness. Piety was the most important virtue. That was the first thing that men looked for when looking for a wife. It was believed that a religious woman was a gift from god. The real reason why it was important was it was something that occupied women while not taking her away from her “proper sphere”, or her duties at home.


 


Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony were some of the major women who went against the cult of domesticity. A major accomplishment for these women was the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. It was the first convention for women’s rights. On the second day of the convention, they began to write the Declaration of Sentiments. The Declaration of Sentiments was modeled after he declaration of independence. It was a list of grievances that the women attending the convention had against men.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_Domesticity


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seneca_Falls_Convention


Jay-Leesa



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mrj

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7.        Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


 


Brook Farm: Brook Farm was a transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put together by former  Unitarian minister George Ripley and his wife around April of 1841. The Farm in which the community was founded along with about a dozen of Ripley’s friends was nine miles from Boston Massachusetts in West Roxbury. The institute was setup much like a joint stock company, twenty-four shares costing five hundred dollars on which interest was payable at five percent, were distributed


                The farm extended over one hundred and seventy five acres.  As the farm became more established it became of place of intellect and knowledge. Most societies like this are based on self-reliance. Manual labor was a huge part of these communities because they had to cultivate their own food. The Ellis “Brook” Farm’s sandy soil caused to fail agriculturally but intellectually they succeeded.


                The Brook farm committed itself to Fourierism, a concept inspired by the socialist Charles Fourier. The idea of Fourierism was to live in a utopian society and share with one another to have a better life style. In the communities commitment to Fourierism they decided to build a communal building call the phalanstery. About seven thousand dollars had been invested into the project before the job had been abandoned in the winter of 1846. Before finishing the building it burned down. The loss of the phalanstery created severe financial problems, as it wasn’t insured, and along with the building the community’s hopes and ambitions burned.


 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brook_farm


http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/transcendentalism/brook_farm.html


 


 -MRJ


 



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Jillian

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4.  Explore the “perfectionist” and “utopian” quality of early American culture, as revealed in both the utopian communal experiments and philosophical movements like transcendentalism. Point out the involvement of many writers in reform movements and experiments like Brook Farm.


 


Transcendentalism: began as a protest against the common ways of life and society at the time. Many new ideas about how society should worked emerged in literature, philosophy, religion, and culture.


Utopian Communal expiraments: set up to break away from common society. Brook Farm was one of the most famous of all expiraments. Existed 9 miles from Boston, Massachusetts on farm land. Concepts of this expirament was inspired by Charles Fourier and founded by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hawthorne wrote "the Blithedale Romance" based on his community of Brook Farm. Agriculture was not very successful here, but most profits were made on the schools set up there. Some of the ideas for Brook farm came from writings by teh great transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. His written account of Walden was a reflection of simple living with nature.


 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brook_Farm


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_David_Thoreau



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Makeda

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Nineteenth century families were smaller than eighteenth century families. Since families were smaller parents could focus more on their children. Also, more American families were teaching their children the difference between right and wrong rather than just beating them. This helped to mold children into better, moral human beings. Men were the primary providers of the family. In the eighteenth century women were the caretakers of the household. Since it was said that women were more delicate and refined than men, husbands left the job of raising the children up to their wives. Women were supposed to devote themselves to their husbands and their household in the way that a citizen should selflessly devote himself to society. The “cult of domesticity” ensured this belief. It allowed husbands to legally beat their wives and automatically gave all of a woman’s property to her husband once she got married among other things.


            Many women, however, began to speak out against the harsh treatment of women and others in the society. Dorothea Dix for example, fought for the better treatment of the mentally ill. During those days the mentally disturbed were thought to be purposefully acting crazy. They were chained, beaten with rods, and whipped. A letter that Dorothea Dix wrote to the Massachusetts legislature changed the way the crazed were treated. People began to stop believing that the mentally ill were willfully crazy and their treatment significantly improved. Amelia Bloomer introduced the idea of Bloomers to America. This was a kind of short skirt and pants. Bloomers were much better than the dresses women used to wear in the eighteenth century, which used to drag on the unsanitary streets of America. Other female reformers fought for the actual rights of women such as, Lucy Stone who fought for the right to keep her maiden name after marriage to her husband. Elizabeth Cady Stanton fought to omit the word obey out of her marriage ceremony.  



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Krystal F.

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Brandi-Great job answering the question. Your info shows that you know what you're talking about. All I have to say is...

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mre

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2. Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


 


The nineteenth-century family changed drastically from centuries before. Men were the provider for his wife and children, and they were completely dependant upon him for shelter, protection and the necessities of life. Because women had very few opportunities to create their own economic standing, they depended on their husbands in that way as well.


            The process of marriage began to change in the 19th century as well. Young people began to work early, to provide for themselves as well as for their parents and siblings. Due to the loosening of parental influence on a young person’s life, it was more common for people to choose their marriage partners, rather than have their marriage arranged for them through their parents. This lead to the widespread idea of “courting” before marriage.


            The “cult of domesticity” was the glamorizing term for “housewife”. American society believed that a women’s role was in the home, but in this role she had complete power over what her children were taught, and what values they had. In this way, American society revered women as the keepers of society’s conscience. The children they raised were to be the next generation of American leaders, and instilling the values of the Republic in them at an early age was a mother’s job.


            When the women’s rights movement began, it was a struggle for equality between men and women in society. Women wanted to be freed from oppression of being a “perpetual minor” in the eyes of the law, which meant that their husbands had complete control over their lives. Men controlled the wages their wives earned if they worked outside the home and he had sole custody of their children as well as his wife. Also, when a husband died, most of the land he had owned was taken from his remaining family, and the widow and her children were left with a small patch of land. When the wife died, men retained most of the land that they had owned, and the government only obtained a small portion of it. The women’s rights movement called for new laws that liberated women from their husband’s control, and gave them specific rights as American citizens. Among these rights was the right to vote and make decisions in the laws that would govern them. The movement was sparked by the Second Great Awakening, which told women that they were a crucial part in the spirituality of their families. Because of this, many women felt the need to create charities and take up fights for the rights of others. Many women joined the abolitionist movement. Some took up the fight for better treatment and living conditions for the mentally insane. Up until that point, the mentally and criminally insane had just been thrown in jail cells and treated cruelly. Dorothea Dix was the forerunner in this movement, and helped to establish the first group of insane asylums in the nation.


            Women took an active role in bettering their political and social status, and at the same time worked tirelessly to better the conditions of other groups of oppressed Americans.  


 


 


text book


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothea_Dix



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Brandi

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jay wrote:



 


Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony were some of the major women who went against the cult of domesticity. A major accomplishment for these women was the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. It was the first convention for women’s rights. On the second day of the convention, they began to write the Declaration of Sentiments. The Declaration of Sentiments was modeled after he declaration of independence. It was a list of grievances that the women attending the convention had against men.




I liked how you included specific people to explain how women began to stand up for their rights during the nineteenth century. But did these women use the Declaration of Sentiments to express the rights of all women or just free white women, the way the Declaration of Independence did for free white men? And sorry for the question, you don't have to respond back because I don't know the answer either =]


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Julia Greene

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Brandi wrote:



When they were out in public it was for work, but their main work was in the home. This concept was called the cult of domesticity.


Good use of definition. Helps people understand the topic better.


Women were deprived of keeping their property if they got married. It would become the husband’s property upon marriage.


How? Did they just grab it from them? Or did legal documents have to be signed?


good jobbbbbb



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Tom

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5.  Use popular contemporary texts like McGuffey’s Readers or Godey’s Lady’s Book to illuminate early American character and values. Discuss how the “messages” that were especially aimed at children or women reveal prevalent social attitudes, as well as the nature and purposes of nineteenth-century education.


McGuffey’s Readers reflect William Holmes McGuffey’s personal views, as well as his rough and tumble early years as a frontier schoolteacher. The four readers helped frame the country's morals and tastes, and ultimately shaped the defined an American. The readers encouraged standards of morality and society throughout the United States for more than a century. There were four volumes of the book which dealt with the natural curiosity of children and put an emphasis on work and an thinking independently. McGuffey encouraged an allegiance to country, and an understanding of the importance of religious values. The Readers showed stories of strength, character, goodness and truth. The books presented a variety of contrasting viewpoints on many issues and topics, and drew moral conclusions about lying, stealing, cheating, poverty, teasing, alcohol, overeating, skipping school and foul language. The books taught children to seek an education and continue to learn throughout their lives.  Most teachers only used the first two volumes which taught students letters and how to make words out of the letters.  The second volume required students to know the first volume as it taught the meaning of sentences.  Each volume increased the level of ability and encouraged students to learn in steps.  He also provided a list of questions after each chapter to sharpen the students skills.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGuffey%27s_Reader



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Curt

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Curt J. Santos


AP US History 1


Chapter 15 Question 7


 


 


         The Brook Farm was a transcendalist utopina experiment started in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. The Brook Farm was inspired by the socialist idea of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle. Then it became later based on the concept of self-reliance. The Brook Farm utopia was intended to rely on agriculture. Agriculture was not as successful in the Brook Farm because the land itself was not suitable for agriculture.


         There were many conflicting ideas though that resutled from the Brook Farm.There was a novel published based on the Brook Farm and its idea of self-reliance on agriculture. Nathaniel Hawthorne stated in his novel that hard farm labor was not conductive to the utopian spirit of a socialist lifestyle. In his bookhe talks about the creativity of the utopian society should not be about hard work but for people who choose to do whatever they thought was creative in their opinion and bring it together with the other people. They then created a house in which to share their ideas and live in their utopian communtiy together until they burned the building and that ended the Brook Farm utopia.


         I believe the Brook Farm’s failure was actually an attempt for a community to work together as a whole. I think the utopian communtiy was in some ways a good idea because people could work together and be able to co-exist in life with others. Even though the community failed I believe it was a good attempt to bring people under one cause to live in total perfection (which is hard in any case



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Makeda

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Jillian, how long did the Brook Farm society last and how succesful was it?

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mre

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Krystal F. wrote:


Brandi-Great job answering the question. Your info shows that you know what you're talking about. All I have to say is...


Sounds like two friends are covering each other's back! Krystal, I bet you can ask a bunch of really tough questions, right?  Or make comments on the content of Brandi's post?

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mre

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mre wrote:



2. Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


 


The nineteenth-century family changed drastically from centuries before. Men were the provider for his wife and children, and they were completely dependant upon him for shelter, protection and the necessities of life. Because women had very few opportunities to create their own economic standing, they depended on their husbands in that way as well.


            The process of marriage began to change in the 19th century as well. Young people began to work early, to provide for themselves as well as for their parents and siblings. Due to the loosening of parental influence on a young person’s life, it was more common for people to choose their marriage partners, rather than have their marriage arranged for them through their parents. This lead to the widespread idea of “courting” before marriage.


            The “cult of domesticity” was the glamorizing term for “housewife”. American society believed that a women’s role was in the home, but in this role she had complete power over what her children were taught, and what values they had. In this way, American society revered women as the keepers of society’s conscience. The children they raised were to be the next generation of American leaders, and instilling the values of the Republic in them at an early age was a mother’s job.


            When the women’s rights movement began, it was a struggle for equality between men and women in society. Women wanted to be freed from oppression of being a “perpetual minor” in the eyes of the law, which meant that their husbands had complete control over their lives. Men controlled the wages their wives earned if they worked outside the home and he had sole custody of their children as well as his wife. Also, when a husband died, most of the land he had owned was taken from his remaining family, and the widow and her children were left with a small patch of land. When the wife died, men retained most of the land that they had owned, and the government only obtained a small portion of it. The women’s rights movement called for new laws that liberated women from their husband’s control, and gave them specific rights as American citizens. Among these rights was the right to vote and make decisions in the laws that would govern them. The movement was sparked by the Second Great Awakening, which told women that they were a crucial part in the spirituality of their families. Because of this, many women felt the need to create charities and take up fights for the rights of others. Many women joined the abolitionist movement. Some took up the fight for better treatment and living conditions for the mentally insane. Up until that point, the mentally and criminally insane had just been thrown in jail cells and treated cruelly. Dorothea Dix was the forerunner in this movement, and helped to establish the first group of insane asylums in the nation.


            Women took an active role in bettering their political and social status, and at the same time worked tirelessly to better the conditions of other groups of oppressed Americans.  


 


 


text book


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothea_Dix





 


I'm ALMOST positive I didn't write this... So who did?



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mre

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End of Thursday's class.

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J.Furtado

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7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook farm.  Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


 


The Oneida Community was founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848. It was a utopian commune that believed the since Christ had already returned in the your 70 AD then it was possible for them to bring about Christ’s millennial kingdom.  Perfectionism is what Noyes used to describe his social theory and philosophy.  Practicing Communalism, Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship The Oneida Community went from a original 87 members to 172 members in 1850, 208 members in 1852 and a whopping 306 members by 1878.  The Oneida Community was located in Oneida, New York; Wallingford, Connecticut; Newark, New Jersey; Putney, Vermont; and Cambridge, Vermont.  All communities but Wallingford Community were closed down in 1854 and Wallingford stayed put until 1878 when it was hit by a tornado.  


 


The Oneida Community allowed both Females and Males to have an equal say in the government.  It offered a nursery to care for children so that both parents could work.  The female style of dress changed giving the women a much greater freedom of movement than the existing women’s styles.    Their main industries were the growing and canning of fruits and vegetables, the production of silk thread and the manufacturing of animal traps.  The Oneida Community was the primary suppliers of animal traps to the Hudson Bay Company.  Complex marriage considered that every male was married to every female.  Members of the community were not allowed to have an exclusive sexual or romantic relationship with each other.  They were to be kept in constant circulation to help prevent a “special love” from forming.  In a week an average female member would have had three sexual encounters or as they call it “interviews”. As a sign of grace, men were to try to avoid orgasms during intercourse with their partners. This was based on the male’s muscular ability to control himself during sexual coitus.  Mutual criticism allowed every member of the community to be able to be criticized b the community as a whole during a general meeting.  This was tried to eliminate bad character traits.  The Oneida Community was very successful considering it lasted bout 30 years.  The Oneida Community structure was based on a very good belief of Perfectionism and John Humphrey Noyes did an amazing job at leading these people to live in a perfect utopian commune.



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J.Furtado

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Jill, Good Description of the Brook Farm Community.did it last long? if not .what were some of the reasons for it coming to an end

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Krystal F.

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mre wrote:





Sounds like two friends are covering each other's back! Krystal, I bet you can ask a bunch of really tough questions, right?  Or make comments on the content of Brandi's post?




         Yes. I was just kidding.


         So Brandi- What was their new Declaration called? and Do you think that women were forced to stay in their "separate spheres?"



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kp

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Kirsten Pereira


5.) Use popular contemporary texts like McGuffey’s Readers or Godey’s Lady’s Book to illuminate early American character and values. Discuss how the "messages" that were especially aimed at children or women reveal prevalent social attitudes, as well as the nature and purposes of nineteenth-century education.



Early American character and values were indeed influenced by texts such as McGuffey’s Readers and Godey’s Lady’s Book. In the 19th century McGuffey’s Readers by William Holmes McGuffey focused on religion and education which was believed to be the center of a healthy society. Stories, poems, essays, speeches, and excerpts from the works of some of the best writers filled the pages of the Readers. They taught moral lessons on stealing, lying, cheating, poverty and even overeating, as well as providing stories of character and strength. The Readers helped shape American character by emphasizing its teachings on religious values, country allegiance, and work. A good amount of the teachings were aimed at children, telling them to seek out education throughout their lives. Instilling Presbyterian Calvinist beliefs into public schooling along with the moral and spiritual education that was needed, as McGuffey’s main purpose for creating these books.


Along with the McGuffey’s Readers there was also the Godey’s Lady’s Book which was most famous women’s magazine in the 19th century. This magazine focused mainly on the character and values of women, unlike the Readers which focused on education for all Americans. These magazines included stories, poetry, needlework, recipes, etc., and was considered to be the best resource for life and living during this era. Sara Joseph Hale, Godey’s partner in the production of the magazine was quoted saying, "The time of action is now. We have to sow the fields - the harvest is sure. The greatest triumph of this progression is redeeming woman from her inferior position and placing her side by side with man, a help-mate for him in all pursuits." This quote along with the magazine itself represented the idea that women should be treated and respected as men are, that they were and are an important part of society and that great things may come from them. This attitude along with the purposes of education that were introduced in the McGuffey’s Readers are what helped make up American characteristics and values.



 


 


http://www.greenlightwrite.com/Godey.htm


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McGuffey_Readers



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kathryn m.

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Wow Kirsten, its amazing how literature really got things stirring about education and women's rights.  I totally agree that education creates a well rounded society.  These ideas and morals probably helped spark the civil war though, since slavery was still occuring at the time.  Morals were one of the major issues dealing with slavery, therefore, as people continued to read these ideas... abolition probably flooded society more greatly than usual.  Also mentioning women's Civil Rights in women magazines probably got more and more women to revolt against domesticity and a man's world.  If it weren't for such ideas being proposed, individual rights for women may have developed much later.  See that.  The blog has really got me thinking.



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kathryn m.

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6.  Examine the story of the Mormons. In what way is it an "American" story (individualism, fighting religious persecution, pioneering)? In what ways is it an "un-American" story (others' intolerance, communalism, polygamy)?



Mormons were forced out of many states because of their religion.  In Missouri the Mormons were attacked in their camps overnight under the supervision of Governor Lilburn Boggs in1838 to wipe out the Mormon group.  So, naturally, they wished to get away from such religious persecution and traveled great distances on the Great Platte River Road along the Missouri River.  They immediately resorted to migrating west, since it was the land of true opportunity to escape unfair treatment and to make a community of their own.  From 1846 to 1870 more than 70,000 Mormons traveled the road starting in Nauvoo, Illinois and ending near the Great Salt Lake in Utah.  They suffered the usual experiences of a pioneer's journey, which consisted of walking hundreds of miles, almost intolerable dust, violent weather, unsanitary water supplies, mud, temperatures, and diseases.  Many people died along the trail, however, it did not prevent to Mormons from giving up.  When they got to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, they maintained religious and cultural character.  Was this story a true American Pioneer story?  Or is it another sad story in America's history dealing with the issue of discrimination on an entire group of peoples.


 


To some extent, the story is an all American tale.  What is more American than migrating west to the lands of opportunities?  And their migration was extremely successful, despite the hardships along the way.  On July 24, 1847 143 men, three women, and two children founded Salt Lake City in Utah.  After a few years the city was an attraction to gold miners seeking great fortunes in the west.  It was also a trading point with local farmers and Native Americans for cattle and crops.  Today Salt Lake City still exists and it is a huge and thriving city.


 


However, the story is also very un-American.  What made the Mormons so different from other Americans living in that time period?  It was nothing at all!  They were individuals like everyone else.  The only difference included their religion.  However, what does their religion matter?  America promised freedom of religion in the constitution, therefore, it was completely unconstitutional for people like the governors and President James Buchanan to use any military forces against these people because of their religious practices.  However, discrimination was not only among the government, but among small towns as well in which neighbors and other people looked down upon the Church of Latter Day Saints.  Discrimination has always been an issue, not only in American history, but the history of man.  Unfortunately it still exists today around the world. 


 


(I love these smilies)


 


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Salt_Lake_City


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_persecution


http://www.americanwest.com/trails/pages/mormtrl.htm


 



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Tanya

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7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


The Oneida Community was officially founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes in Oneida, New York. While at Yale, John Noyes discovered a new way of interpreting salvation, which he called Perfectionism. The members of the Oneida Community were very religious. They wanted to create a “Heaven on Earth.” Their practices and beliefs influenced the way they went about life. There was a separate building of for children between the ages of two and twelve, there they would be taken care of by teachers and nurses in the “Children’s Department.” Children also became the property of the community because they believed that a "child is best brought up in an open Community element, and not in a closed circle of family relatives."


The Oneida had several beliefs/practices:


1. Complex marriage - This belief was that every man and every women was married to each other. They were allowed to have intercourse, but could not become attached to one another. Since they didn’t want two people to fall in love, this practice allowed members to have intercourse with as many different partners as possible.


2. Male continence - Used mainly as a type of birth control. They didn’t want the “man’s seed” to be wasted if an unwanted pregnancy occurred.


3. Ascending fellowship - When the young virgins in the community were introduced to the practice of complex marriage. This practice was enforced to prevent younger members from being close to only one other person and it made their interactions within the group wider.


4. Mutual criticism - When someone in the community was scolded, they would be taken in front of either a committee or sometimes the whole community to be criticized for their bad traits. The only member of the community that didn’t have to endure mutual criticism was Noyes because he believed a group should not criticize its leader.


5. Stirpiculture - A selective breeding program that was used so that only the best children would be bred. Stirpiculture is derived from the principle of eugenics, selective breeding to improve hereditary qualities.


They also believed in ‘equality of the sexes and ‘economic communism.’


By 1878, they community had their highest amount of members, 306.


In January of 1881, the Oneida Community was abandoned, and the joint-stock company, "Oneida Community, Limited" was established. In 1940 they became “Oneida Limited,” which is still around today. The Oneida were in the Trap and Fruit preserve business, which lasted until the first quarter of the twentieth century. From then on they started making silverware, which they still do today.


I think that the reason the Oneida Community didn’t last was because it’s members that were born within it were curious as to what other things the outside world had to offer. The people who originally joined did so because it was their choice. However, the children born within the community didn’t have a choice, they were automatically taught the beliefs and practices of the Oneida’s. Once the original members were gone, it didn’t leave many members that actually wanted to continue with the beliefs and practices of the community. For a “utopian community” to survive, it needs members willing to follow it’s ways of living.


http://libwww.syr.edu./digital/guides/o/OneidaCommunityCollection/hsr1.htm


http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm


http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/Oneida.html



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Tanya

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Makeda, your discription of the ninteenth century household was very informative, as was the information you provided on the woman reformers.  I think it's wonderful how Dorothea Dix worked to create better surrounding for the mentall ill.  Before the reform, they had to stay in the prisons with criminals when they never committed a crime.  Wonderful job! 

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Alex Z.

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kathryn m. wrote:



Mormons were forced out of many states because of their religion.  In Missouri the Mormons were attacked in their camps overnight under the supervision of Governor Lilburn Boggs in1838 to wipe out the Mormon group.  So, naturally, they wished to get away from such religious persecution and traveled great distances on the Great Platte River Road along the Missouri River.  They immediately resorted to migrating west, since it was the land of true opportunity to escape unfair treatment and to make a community of their own.  From 1846 to 1870 more than 70,000 Mormons traveled the road starting in Nauvoo, Illinois and ending near the Great Salt Lake in Utah.  They suffered the usual experiences of a pioneer's journey, which consisted of walking hundreds of miles, almost intolerable dust, violent weather, unsanitary water supplies, mud, temperatures, and diseases.  Many people died along the trail, however, it did not prevent to Mormons from giving up.  When they got to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, they maintained religious and cultural character.  Was this story a true American Pioneer story?  Or is it another sad story in America's history dealing with the issue of discrimination on an entire group of peoples.


 


To some extent, the story is an all American tale.  What is more American than migrating west to the lands of opportunities?  And their migration was extremely successful, despite the hardships along the way.  On July 24, 1847 143 men, three women, and two children founded Salt Lake City in Utah.  After a few years the city was an attraction to gold miners seeking great fortunes in the west.  It was also a trading point with local farmers and Native Americans for cattle and crops.  Today Salt Lake City still exists and it is a huge and thriving city.


 


However, the story is also very un-American.  What made the Mormons so different from other Americans living in that time period?  It was nothing at all!  They were individuals like everyone else.  The only difference included their religion.  However, what does their religion matter?  America promised freedom of religion in the constitution, therefore, it was completely unconstitutional for people like the governors and President James Buchanan to use any military forces against these people because of their religious practices.  However, discrimination was not only among the government, but among small towns as well in which neighbors and other people looked down upon the Church of Latter Day Saints.  Discrimination has always been an issue, not only in American history, but the history of man.  Unfortunately it still exists today around the world. 


 


(I love these smilies)


 


 





First off: yes, smilies rule.  Secondly, great job!  
Ok, my first question is: Why was the Mormon religion so highly disliked? I'm sorry if that's hard to answer, but I'm wondering right now what on earth could've created such bad feelings? Perhaps I should become a little more familiar with the Church of the Latter-Day Saints...
and: 143 men, 3 women?!?  really?

- end -



almost!


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Jarred

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7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


 


Ann Lee, or Mother Ann as she was later known, founded the Shakers or the United Society of Believers, in Manchester, England. They eventually came over to America and settled in an area around Albany, New York. They were actually a splinter of a Quaker community and were therefore called “Shaking Quakers” as they violently shook from head to toe to rid themselves of evil sprits.


They were extremely strict believers in absolute celibacy. They were able to maintain their numbers by conversion and adoptions. The movement was very popular in the beginning; boasting thousands of people though out the late eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. However presently, in 2006, there are only 4 Shakers left, living in Sabbathday Lake, Maine.


The followers of Ann Lee came to see her as the embodiment of God in female form. She was imprisoned many times for not keeping the Sabbath by her “shaking” and dancing rituals and also for blasphemy. She urged her followers to attack sin in a more direct means and to preach the shakers ways to everyone.


The Shaker communities in America were very “original”. The town was set up into groups that were named after the compass rose. “Each house was divided so that men and women did everything separately. They used different staircases, doors and even sat on opposite sides of the room.” This was to make sure that aboslutly no contact happened between the two sexes.


Their religion was simular to regular Christian faiths yet very different in very big ways. They believed in the dualism of God: God was both male and female at the same time and thus literally created all of humanity in his image. Thus they believed that Jesus was the male version of Christ and Mother Ann was the femake version of Christ. They believed that Adam’s sin was in sexual impurity and thus they did away with marriage


The Shakers did not really fail, they more so just died out. Several reasons cuased this. First more and more people were drawn away from farms and into cities where Shakers were practically non-existent. Shakers also found it extremley difficult to make money from their homemade goods with the coming of mass production. Of course, one of the biggest is the simple fact that hey never had children to pass the religion on to and laws have since been made saying that religious goups can’t adopt children. They were very simply unable to keep up with the times.


 



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Jarred

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ha almost forgot


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakers#Modern-day_Shakers



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Jarred

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Brandi - first off really good job at your post. The only thing I had an issue with was that you never mentioned the women workers such as the mills girls and other workers who were obviously never part of the cult of domesticity or at least weren't until when and if they got married. Still good though. MAHA!


 



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Alex Z.

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Tanya wrote:



7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


...


I think that the reason the Oneida Community didn’t last was because it’s members that were born within it were curious as to what other things the outside world had to offer. The people who originally joined did so because it was their choice. However, the children born within the community didn’t have a choice, they were automatically taught the beliefs and practices of the Oneida’s. Once the original members were gone, it didn’t leave many members that actually wanted to continue with the beliefs and practices of the community. For a “utopian community” to survive, it needs members willing to follow it’s ways of living.





Tanya, although I already commented, I found a point you made in here very interesting. That part about children being born into a society: Do you think this is the case in more than just the Oneida Community?

great job, btw!



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Amanda

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jay wrote:


 


A major accomplishment for these women was the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. It was the first convention for women’s rights. On the second day of the convention, they began to write the Declaration of Sentiments. The Declaration of Sentiments was modeled after he declaration of independence. It was a list of grievances that the women attending the convention had against men.







Why do you think it was that women continued to be ignored despite the Seneca Falls Conventions, in whihc they stated their grievances? Why do you think that women were still not given the right to vote until almost eighty years after the Seneca Falls Convention?

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Alex Z.

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Chapter 15 Computer Lab Assignment


Question 7


The Shakers - formed in Manchester, England in 1772 - had branched off of the Quakers (Religious Society of friends), hence the similarity in the names. Their doctrine was also partially adopted by the “French Prophets” (Camisards). They were known for trembling, shouting, and speaking in tongues while “wrestling in soul to be freed from the power of sin and a worldly life,” especially under their early leaders James and Jane Wardley. As taught by Ann Lee, the ‘shaking’ was a result of one’s sin leaving their body, for they believed that holiness was attainable, similar to some Quakers, but unlike many other branches of Christianity. They had nothing against marriage, but set it under celibacy in regards to approaching perfection.


As time went on, communalism became part of the Shaker societies, mainly due to leader Joseph Meacham. From the 1790s on thousands of Shakers split off and expanded in various directions, only to end up in 2006 down to four (4) members living in Sabbathday Lake, Maine. Perhaps the main reason for their temporary lastingness and eventual dying-out was the practice of letting 21-year-old males to decide whether or not they wanted to remain Shakers. A huge factor in the decrease of Shakers involved the fact that devout Shakers did not believe in giving birth, so therefore all children had to be adopted. These two factors combined would make getting new members difficult and keeping them even harder. Therefore, the Shakers’ ultimate failure to remain should not be looked upon with negativity towards their beliefs, but looked upon as a lack of interest in the beliefs themselves by those involved.


---


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaker

---
  ...and to all a good night! 



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kathryn m.

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Alex wrote:


First off: yes, smilies rule.  Secondly, great job!  
Ok, my first question is: Why was the Mormon religion so highly disliked? I'm sorry if that's hard to answer, but I'm wondering right now what on earth could've created such bad feelings? Perhaps I should become a little more familiar with the Church of the Latter-Day Saints...
and: 143 men, 3 women?!?  really?

- end -



almost!


______________________________________________________


Alex, I am so glad that you love smilies just as much as I do.  And yes.  "Why the Mormons were persecuted" is a difficult question to answer.  However, I just might have several reasons why they were so discriminated against.  Firstly, when Joseph Smith announced that an angel gave him two golden tablets in the middle of a valley, much controversy spread throughout the US.  Some people thought Joseph Smith was a fraud therefore harshly judged all of his followers. Secondly, Mormon men practiced something called polygamy or the ability for a man to have several wives.  It was not considered morally correct to have 6 wives and 50 children (figuratively speaking), especially while so many other religious sects in the Second Great Awakening preached women's rights and the importance of morality.  As a result of polygamy, the mormon population swelled immensely and politically affected the government.  They would vote as a block, in which everyone voted for the same leaders, laws, and other politicale issues. This gave Mormons a substantial amount of power in the US government. Therefore, people got angry and discrimination got out of control when a mob killed the Mormon founder and religious leader Joseph Smith.  So, the Mormons developed their own militia.  Since such a large group of people formed a defense force to physically protect themselves from angry mobs... it posed a threat to the federal government. The American government did not like this at all.  As a result to all of the persecution and criticism... the Mormons packed their bags and moved to Salt Lake City. 


Thanks Alex for asking that question.  Looking up the excess information actually got me to learn way more information.   But now my brain is throbbing



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Amanda

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7.  Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


The Oneida community, which was one of the many utopian communities to spring up during the various reforms and religious revivals of the 19th century, was considered one of the most controversial communities of its time. John Humphrey Noyes founded Oneida, a communal community that believed in complex marriage and mutual criticism in order to achieve their sense of utopia, in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The members of this community practiced Perfectionism, which is a belief based they could be “free of sin and perfect in this lifetime.” The men and women were seen as being equals for the most part in many of the communities affairs and were given an equal chance at getting involved in the Oneida government. The women were allowed to work and nurseries were used in order to give women this opportunity. They were even allowed to take more comfortable styles of dress, which gave them more ability to move freely and comfortably. The community provided jobs for its members in order to support itself effectively. The members grew and canned fruits and vegetables, made animal traps, leather travel bags, and garden furniture which gave Oneida the support it needed to continue as an independent community.
One of the most controversial aspects of Oneida was their belief in “complex marriage.” In the spirit of communalism, Noyes believed that every male member was married to each female member. This meant that no personal relationships or marriages were allowed, all members were allowed, and expected to, have sexual intercourse with their fellow members of the community. Another way in which Noyes hoped to achieve perfection for his community was through the use of mutual criticism. Each member of the community would take turns, sitting silently as their peers discussed each of that member’s flaws and merits. Noyes believed this would take his members closer to achieving perfection for themselves and the community.
The decline of Oneida began when Noyes decided to pass the community on to his son, Theodore, who was not as strong of a leader and did not believe in the cause as much as his father did. This move split the community between different members fighting for control over the whole. The next generation of members was also not as interested in the original ideas which the entire community was based on, many longed to take part in traditional practices, such as monogamy. In 1879 Noyes fled the country in fear of charges of statutory rape, never returning, and the community later decided to give up the entire practice of “complex marriage.” The community eventually disbanded and became a joint-stock company, which still produces cutlery under the name Oneida Limited.
The failure of Oneida was due largely to the fact that they practiced such controversial beliefs. Their beliefs were far too free for the time and still would be seen as too free to many people today. It would be difficult for alot of people to accept such practices and people would be suspicious of such free practices as “complex marriage.” It is surprising that Oneida lasted for as long as it did, with, what seems to be, very little interference from outsiders. If a community similar to that of Oneida were to form today it would probably not be able to last as long as Oneida did.

sources:

text book

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneida_Community


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Kelsey Smithh

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7.Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.

The definition of utopia is an ideal place or state, which is what everyone hopes for. During the 1800’s Americans wanted to live in a utopia community, a place of perfection. These Americans went out and established different utopian communities, which didn’t work out for various reasons. However the question is were these communities successful or a failure. All utopias consist of the same basic foundation, the want to create something better with others who share the same views about the situations. America was supposed to way out of England’s power and give them time and land to develop a utopia. American settlers instead came to America established the foundations for society and then decide yet again that its not what they want. Regardless of where the utopia was established or how many they create its will become a failure. The average American gives up faith in something once the slightest problem occurs, citizens need to find better ways to adapting instead of running off and creating something different.


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mre

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Assignments due today.

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Tanya

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Sorry I'm replying so late, it's the first time I was able to get back on here.


To Alex's question:  Yes, I think it is the case anywhere with children.  Even in the home.  If a child dislikes their surroundings and teachings at home, it is more likely they will move away as soon as they can.  Or if a person doesn't like the laws of their state or country, then when they are old enough to start their life separate from that of their parents, they could move away to another state or country, to whatever they find more suiting to them.  They will do whatever is best for their self-interest.  Religion could be another example...children are brought up practicing the religion of their parents.  However, when they begin to discover other religions and when they become old enough to make their own decisions, they could choose to follow another religion.



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David Souza

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David Souza     AP U.S. History     2-304  A     Ch. 15, Q7


7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.


The Oneida Society was formed by John Humphrey Noyes in Oneida, New York in 1848. Noyes formed the society in order to create a utopia. Both male and females were given equal rights in the society. The women in the society worked as often as the men and did not wear the same style of clothing that other women wore outside the society. The women wore what is equivalent to bloomers. Within the society was a daycare center where all the children went while their parents were at work. In the beginning of the society, there were only 87 members, but by 1878 there were 306 members. The religious belief of the Oneidas’ was that in 70 AD the Christ had come back. They believed in order to bring the Christ back again through faith they had to be “free of sin and perfect”. In order to achieve “perfection“, they believed they had to have “cleansing sex“. Sex was to be a taught to the young by the older members (who were infertile) because they were believed to be “spiritually higher”. You had to have sex and reach a certain point where you have “ascended fellowship”, meaning you are perfect. After you reach that point you then have to “descend fellowship”, meaning you must help the others to reach the same point as you. No one was allowed to marry or have a relationship with any of the members because this was imperfect. The men were not allowed to ejaculate in the women; this showed to the others their strength. Another reason why the men were not allowed to ejaculate is because if they got the woman pregnant then she will have an unperfected child. The elders got to decide who could form a child by selecting “perfect” individuals. After forming a child, they were not allowed to get emotionally attached to the child and if they did they were banned from seeing the child. The Oneidas also had a committee were all the members in the society would gather and the elders would give criticism to them to change their ways and achieve perfection. The Oneida Society did not rely on the outside world for goods or supplies, they were self-sufficient. The Oneida would grow vegetables, fruit and grain, also they would can fruit and vegetables. They also developed garden furniture and were great in making silverware. Some other things they created were leather bags, animal traps and making silk thread. Although they were self-sufficient and prosperous, their numbers were not large. Eventually the founder John Humphrey Noyes died and he passed on the leadership role to his atheist son Theodore Noyes who did not have the same leadership qualities as him. By the time he took control of the Oneida, the elders who had helped start their utopia passed away. The generations that had followed did not agree with the traditional way of life so in 1879 they decided to have committed relationships and marriages instead of their sharing of everyone. In 1879, Theodore Noyes had a warrant for his arrest because he still followed the traditional way for sharing of partners, so he fled to Niagara Falls, Ontario. With the leader gone, and new generations no longer following the old way of life, the Oneida Society became a joint-stock company in 1879. The company continued to make silverware and formed Oneida Limited which still exists today. The success of the Oneida has only been through its development of goods such as silverware and animal traps. The Oneida society should be judged as being a self-sufficient, prosperous and economically stable society. The failure of the Oneida society is that it was morally wrong; since they forced young generations to have sex and grow up without their parents and follow a way of life that they had no say in.


 


Sources:


1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneida_Society



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Butchie

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7. Analyze one or more of the utopian communities, such as the Shaker communes, New Harmony, Oneida, or Brook Farm. Consider how the success or failure of such efforts should be judged.

the Brook farm commuity was started in 1841 and ended in 1847. it was started by a man named George Ripley in West Roxbury, MA. They believed in Fourierism which was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle. Their society was meant to be an agricultural society but the land was not suitable for farming. But they did run successful schools which actually gave them most of their profit. Nathaniel Hawthorne was on of the founding members of this community mand he wrote about it in his book, "The Blihedale Romance". During its later years, the Brook Farm community became more and more committed to Fourierist theories, and committed itself to building an ambitious communal building known as the "phalanstery (phalanstčre)." When this building caught fire and burned to the ground in 1846, the community's hopes perished with it.

The beliefs that the community is built on should be how they were judged. I believe that the Brook Farm community had a good moral basis but they just ran into some bad luck along the way.

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Butchie

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My resources were:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brook_farm
other student's posts

spin:


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David Souza

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Krystal F. wrote:



2.  Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the “cult of domesticity” and women’s “separate sphere” gave women a specially defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


During the nineteenth century, women’s roles in society were greatly controlling.  Women didn’t have many rights or freedoms at all.  For example, they couldn’t vote.  Women also lost control of money and property rights after they got married.  The Cult of Domesticity was believed that women’s roles when they’re married were to set examples and teach the children, as well as maintain their home for their husbands.  In order to be a “true” woman, they were to possess piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity. 


The “separate sphere” was a defined role for women working in the home.  It was seen that women were only suited to teach and raise their children.


 


Major female reformers included Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.  These women led the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, in which they rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include women’s rights.  They called it the Declaration of Sentiments.  These women, along with many others in history, advocated their rights as well as others’.


                                                      


                                                      _Krystal


 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_domesticity







Great job!  Just have a few questions to ask though….


1.) You said that women did not have many rights at all, what rights were they given?


             2.) When you said:


Major female reformers included Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. These women led the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, in which they rewrote the Declaration of Independence to include women’s rights. They called it the Declaration of Sentiments. These women, along with many others in history, advocated their rights as well as others’.”


*How did the people react to them rewriting the Constitution, did they get in trouble?


*You said that these women had advocated for the rights of others, who are they?



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steven

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Brandi wrote:



2) Examine the nature of the nineteenth-century family and its relation to society, stressing particularly how the "cult of domesticity" and women's "separate sphere" gave women a specifically defined role in society. Examine how some female reformers began to advocate their own rights as well as the betterment of others.


During the nineteenth century women were not part of public affairs. Their lives consisted of time at home. When they were out in public it was for work, but their main work was in the home. This concept was called the cult of domesticity. Women were supposed to prepare the house and keep it neat for when their husbands came home. Their main job in the home was to set an example for the children and teach them good morals.


Women were deprived of keeping their property if they got married. It would become the husband’s property upon marriage. There were also different reforms over suffrage, such as the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 led by Lucretia Mott, Susan Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They took a stand in the re-writing of the Declaration of Independence to list different things that they believed were wrong that were held against women.


Women did not normally stand up for their rights, being afraid to be the first to do so. They were so used to being in their own "separate sphere" away from that of men. Women were meant to be the base and "main ingredient" of a family, holding it together and making it suitable for their husband and children. This concept gave a specific role to all women during the nineteenth century.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_domesticity




Do you think it was more out of fear that no woman revolted against the whole cult of domesticity idea or was it more over that it was accepted??


Why do you think it was so important to make sure the woman stayed working in their houses why do you think they weren't allowed the option of steping out as a form of comfort from their world of work?? 


an offtrack question: Do you think there is a direct connection between opression made to woman and that of different races???


-some transitions were confusing other than that good job!



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Brittney

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Brittney


 


3. Examine the early women’s movement as one of the most important reforms and explain the obstacles if faced. Show the relationship between women’s growing activism and the broader reforms of the antebellum era.


 


The campaigns dealing with the early women’s movements were things such as reproductive rights, abortion rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, sexual violence, along with any other cases in which women were not treated fairly.  Women’s voices were ignored for thousands of years and the Feminist movement thus criticized it. One of the first steps to reformation of women’s rights was the first women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls in New York in 1848.  Other ways that women acted on their rights were speaking and writing on the issues of the times.


 


The time before the women’s movements, women were treated very harshly and basically ignored. After the women’s movements during the antebellum era women had more rights but still were not treated completely fair. Women were allowed to work but still received less pay then men. Most married women did not work because their job was to stay home and car for the home. In a sense the women’s movement changed a lot of things such as the harsh treatment but it took more time in order for women to be treated equally.



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